History of Java Island INDONESIA

Java is an Indonesian island located in the Sunda Islands and is the 13th largest island in the world. The total population of Java is about 150 million. Java is home to 60% of Indonesia’s total population. This figure is lower than the 1905 census, which reached 80.6% of Indonesia’s total population. The decline in the proportion of Java’s population is due to migration (migration) from Java to other parts of Indonesia. The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta, which is located in the northwestern part of Java Island (to be exact, the westernmost point of the Pantura Line).

Java is a relatively young island, formed primarily from volcanic activity. A series of volcanoes form a range extending from the east to the west of the island, and to the north is the plain of alluvial deposits of the river. Java is separated by a strait of several major islands, including Sumatra in the northwest, Kalimantan in the north, Madura in the northeast, and Bali in the east. On the other hand, the Indian Ocean is to the south of Java Island.

Many stories of Indonesian history take place on this island. In the past, Java was the center of several Hindu Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic Sultan, the Dutch East Indies colonial government, and the Indonesian independence movement. This island has had a great impact on Indonesia’s social, political and economic life.

Most of the population speaks three major languages. Javanese is the native language of 100 million Indonesians, and most of the speakers live on Javanese. Most of the population is bilingual and they speak Indonesian as both their first and second languages. The other two important languages ​​are Sundanese and Betawi. Most of Java’s population is Muslim. However, the island still has different denominations, religions, ethnicities and cultures.

The island is administratively divided into six states: West Java, Central Java, East Java and Banten, and two special areas, DKI Jakarta and DI Yogyakarta.

Etymology
The name “Java” comes from the Sanskrit chronicle, which refers to an island called yavadvip (a) (dvipa means “island”, yava means “barley” or “grain”. Means). [1] [2] Whether this grain is barley (Setaria italica) or rice, both are widely found on the island due to pre-Indian influence. [3] The island may have had many previous names, including the possible origin of the word ja, which means “far”. [1] Yavadvipa is mentioned in the Indian epic Ramayana. Sugriva, the Pangrimawanara (ape) of the Srirama army, sends his messenger to Yabadvip (“Java Island”) to search for Dewisinta. [4] Then, based on Indian literature, especially Tamil literature, the Sanskrit name is called yāvaka dvīpa (dvīpa = island).

Another hypothesis is that the word “Java” comes from the root of the Proto-Austronesian word for “house.” [Five]

The island named Iabadiu or Jabadiu is mentioned in the geography of Ptolemy, created around 150 AD in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean “barley island” and is rich in gold, with a silver town called Argyra at the western end. This name refers to Java [6] and seems to be derived from the Hindu name Java-dvipa (Yawadvipa).

See: Kingdom of Sabak and Excitement
In the annual reports of Songzhou and Liangzhou, Java is called Shepo (5th century AD), Herin (640-818 AD), and is called Shepo again until the beginning of the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368). increase. Mentions Zhao. [7]: According to the records of 12 Ma Huan (Yingya Shenlan), the Chinese called Java Chaowa, and the island was formerly called Yingya (She-pó or She-bó). .. [8]: 86 Sulaiman al-Tajir al-Sirafi mentions two important islands that separate Arabia and China. Indonesian): Sabaku), length 400 Parasan, identified as Java Island. [9]: 30-31 When John (1338-1353) of Marignoli returned from China to Avignon, he said he had stopped by the Kingdom of Sabaeans. He had many elephants and was led by the Queen. The name mackerel may be his interpretation of Shebo. [10] (p.xii, 192–194) Tver (Russia) merchant Afanacy Nikitin traveled to India in 1466 and described the land of Java in his diary. , He calls it абайте (shabait / šabajte). [11] [12] The word “mackerel” itself comes from the Kaui Java word mackerel, which means “meeting” or “meeting.” Therefore, this word can be interpreted as “meeting place”. [13] According to Fami Basha, the word means “meeting place,” “meeting place,” or “national meeting place.”

history

This island is part of the Sunda Islands and the Sunda Shelf.

Before the ice melted, it was on the southeastern tip of the Asian continent. The fossil of Homo erectus, commonly known as the “Java Man,” was discovered on the banks of the Bengawan Solo River and dates back 1.7 million years. [15] The Sangiran site is an important prehistoric site in Java. Several megalithic structures have been found on Java, including Menhir, Dolmen, stone tables, and the Step Pyramid, commonly known as Punden Berndak. Punden Terrace and Menhir were found at the megalithic sites of Pagunangan, Chisorok and Gunungpadan in West Java. The Cipari Megalithic Site, also found in West Java, shows monolithic structures, steps and sarcophagus. [16] This Punden Terrace is believed to be the original structure of the archipelago and is the basis of the temple building of the Hindu Buddhist Kingdom of the archipelago after the locals were influenced by the Hindu Buddhist civilization from India. It was a good design. Buni culture from the 4th century BC to the 1st or 5th century BC, the clay pottery culture that developed on the north coast of western Java. This Protohistory culture is the predecessor of the Tarumanagara Kingdom.

The highly fertile and rainfall-rich island of Java enables the development of rice cultivation in wetlands and encourages increasing levels of cooperation between villages. From the alliance of these villages, a small kingdom developed. The volcanic mountains and surrounding highlands along Java Island relatively separate the island’s internal territories and their people from external influences. [17] Before the development of Islamic countries and the arrival of European colonialism, most rivers on Java were short streams, but existing rivers were the primary means of communication for the community. Since only the Brantas and Bengawan Solo rivers can be used as long-distance connections, the valleys of these rivers form the center of a great kingdom.

It is estimated that at least in the middle of the 17th century, a transportation system consisting of a road network, permanent bridges, and excise tax collection offices was established on Java Island. Road use relies heavily on ongoing maintenance, as local rulers control these routes and heavy monsoons can also interfere with travel. It can be said that communication between Javanese residents at that time was difficult. [18]

The emergence of civilization on Java is often associated with the story of Aji Saka. Ajisaka is said to be the bearer of Javanese civilization, but the story of Ajisaka (78 AD) has received some counterarguments and counterarguments from other historical sources. Ramayana in Valmiki, written around 500 BC, records that Java had a royal government organization long before the story.

“Yawadwipa is adorned with seven kingdoms of gold and silver islands, rich in gold mines, and has Mt. Chishira (cold) at the top, which borders the sky.” [19] (p.6)

According to Chinese records, the Kingdom of Java was founded in 65 BC, 143 years before the story of Sakaji began. [20] (pp.55-56)

The story of Saka or Ajisaka is a new Javanese story. The relevance of this story was not found in the old Javanese text. This story tells the story of what happened in the Kingdom of Medan Kamran on Java Island in the past. At that time, King Medan Kamran Prab Dewata Chenker replaced Saka Aji. This story is believed to imply the entry of Indians into Java. Based on the information from the Liang dynasty, the Kingdom of Java was divided into two, the pre-Hindu kingdom and the post-Hindu tradition that began in 78 AD. [21] (p.5 and 7)

Hindu Buddhist era
The Kingdoms of Tarma and Sunda emerged in West Java in the 4th and 7th centuries, respectively, while the Kingdom of Medan was the first major kingdom to exist in Central Java in the early 8th century. The Kingdom of Medan defended Hinduism, worshiped Lord Shiva, and built some of the earliest Hindu temples on Java Island on the Dieng Plateau. The Shailendra dynasty, a Mahayana Buddhist patriot, flourished in the Kedu Plains of the 8th century. Their kingdom built various temples in the 9th century, including the Borobudur Temple and Prambanan Temple in Central Java.

Around the 10th century, the center of power moved east from the center of Java. In the eastern region were the kingdoms of Kadiri, Singhasari and Majapahit, which were primarily dependent on rice cultivation. However, trade between the Indonesian archipelago and China and India is also developing.

Raden Wijaya founded Majapahit and his power peaked during the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350-1389). Direct control tended to be limited to Java, Bali and Madura, but the kingdom claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago. Gajamada was Hayamul’s Mahapati

He led many territorial conquests for the kingdom. Formerly the Kingdom of Java was focused on agriculture. However, Majapahit managed to manage the ports and routes and became the first commercial empire in Java. Majapahit experienced a setback with the death of Hayam Wuruk and the entry of Islam into Indonesia.

Islamic empire era
By the end of the 16th century, Islam’s development had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as Java’s dominant religions. The emergence of the Islamic kingdom in Java was also inseparable from the role of Warrisongo. Initially, the spread of Islam was very rapid and accepted by the general public, but eventually Dawah entered and was carried out by the rulers of the island.

The first Islamic kingdoms recorded in Java were Demak Kingdom or Demak Bintoro Sultanate. The Kingdom of Demak was led by one of the descendants of the Muslim Majapahit, Raden Patah. During this period, the Islamic Kingdom began to develop and gained power in Pajan, Surakarta, Yogyakarta, Cirebon and Banten.

The Kingdom of Mataram in the second half of the 16th century grew into a dominant force in central and eastern Java. The rulers of Surabaya and Cirebon were successfully conquered under Mataram’s rule, leaving only Mataram and Banten when the Dutch arrived in the 17th century.

Some kingdoms of Islamic heritage in Java can still be found in some cities. For example, Surakarta has two kingdoms, Kasnanan and Manknegaran, Yogyakarta has two kingdoms, Sultan and Pakalaman, and Cirebon has three kingdoms. In other words, Kasephan, Kasirebonan, Kasephan.